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  4. Expert opinion on M.Sc. research Topic selection

    WA. Dear Junaid, 1. Your research topic is very important, being directly related to the professional engineering practice. Please do share the results & conclusions here, on completion of your research, for the benefit of forum users. 2. For obtaining relevant literature, you may adopt following methods: a. Your university will certainly be having subscription to one or more research publishing websites (like ScienceDirect etc). If so, you may search & download relevant research material from these websites. b. You may also request your colleagues studying in other universities to do a similar search on the websites subscribed by their institutions, in case their subscribed research sites are different. c. Use Google search (with pdf option) to find out relevant research material from many other resources (international universities, research sharing sites like Research Gate & more), downloadable free of cost in several cases. Wish you best of luck in your research. Regards.
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  6. Expert opinion on M.Sc. research Topic selection

    @Ayesha As we are using half scaled Model in our experiment so the objective of this similitude study is to determine a set of principles,correlation and conditions upon which our scaled model can be related to the prototype for predicting prototype performance.
  7. Expert opinion on M.Sc. research Topic selection

    In order to study the effect/performance of infill walls we are providing infill walls in our half scaled 2-story RC Frame model which we will be testing on 6DOF Shake Table here in Earthquake Engineering Center, UET Peshawar...
  8. Interesting. I also don't have any experience with Similitude Study. I am curious to ask that what is the objective of this study?
  9. Expert opinion on M.Sc. research Topic selection

    Wa alaikum us salam, I dont have any relevant info regarding similitude study but I found your research topic very interesting. By the way, Are you going to consider effect of infill walls as well? Best of luck.
  10. AoA , I am going to start my M.Sc. research on "Similitude study of scaled 3D RC Frame for seismic testing on 6DOF Shake Table". Need your expert opinion on this topic. It will be of great help if anyone on this forum have work on Similitude Study and share their experience,relevant research papers etc Thanks
  11. Reinforcement in Sap 2000

    Your question is not clear. If you explain your problem in a bit detail, you may get a more specific reply. However, if the purpose of your question is to know about general procedure of interpreting reinforcements given by SAP2000 software, it is given below. 1. When we design a concrete frame in SAP2000, it gives following different types of reinforcement: a. In case of columns, required areas of main (or vertical) steel bars and lateral (or ties) reinforcement. b.In case of beams, results are in the form of reinforcement areas for bottom & top main bars as well as stirrups. 2. Given area of steel for column vertical bars is to be converted to suitable number of bars (using theoretical bar areas, as we do for manual calculations) according to code requirements in such a way that the provided steel area is either equal to or a bit more than the area required by SAP2000. Similarly, reinforcement areas given for bottom & top bars of beam members are converted to suitable number & sizes of bars, such that provided steel area is either equal to or a bit more than the area required by the software. 3. Reinforcement areas provided by SAP2000 for column ties & beam stirrups can be converted to suitable tie & stirrup size and spacing, similar to that explained in the following thread for ETABS case: HTH Regards.
  12. How to compute steel reinforcement for a concrete section in sap 2000?
  13. Hello everybody i need a favour can anybody provide me with the following paper, i cannot access it.... Empirical relationship for frequency content parameters of earthquake ground motions by ellen rathje
  14. RT @nasser_duwailah: استعدوا للصلاة اللهم فرج كرب اخوتنا في قطر و اهد حكامنا للخير و جنبهم بطانة السوء. اللهم وفق عبدك صباح الاحمد لخير ال…

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  16. Free Vibrations

    W/Salaam, Free vibrations are vibrations of the structure (or any other thing) that result once the structure is excited and the vibrations are let to die down without additional interference. For example if you have a pendulum at rest, you pick the bob in your hand, move it on one side and let it go. Once you let go the bob, the pendulum vibrates around the initial rest point. The period of vibration is dependent on the length of pendulum (technically the parameter that defines its stiffness) and is independent of the mass of the bob. If you measure the time the pendulum would take even as it slows down to complete a cycle, it is exactly the same. Amazing isn't it. This is an example of free vibrations. Now, forced vibrations are different. In forced vibration, you have a situation where the load producing or causing vibration of structure (or any other thing) is "continuously being applied" at a frequency. An example would be a reciporcating or centrifugal machine sitting on say concrete foundation. Operation of machine would put the foundation in vibration (machine load itself has a frequency which may or may not match with foundation natural frequency) and would force the foundation response under its frequency. The foundation will as a result vibrate based on its stiffness (like pendulum). Another example considering the case of pendulum (so that you can relate) for forced vibrations would be if you put a big fan infront of the pendulum and it vibrates under the wind of fan. Summary: In free vibrations, you disturb a structure and let it vibrate without disturbing it further. In forced vibrations, the structure is continuously being disturbed by a force applied at regular interval. That is why they are called forced vibrations as we are forcing structural response under external cyclic load. Enjoy the attached forced vibrations video as well that shows breaking of a wine glass under sound. Sound waves are what are forcing the glass to vibrate and the frequency of the sound waves has been set so that its close to natural frequency of the glass causing it to resonate and break.
  17. Free Vibrations

    Salam, How we can simply define a free vibrations in buildings? As force is required to make system oscillate, so how a structure oscillates without any external lateral force?
  18. Response Spectrum Analysis in ETABS

    Base located at the ground in that case. Location of Base for Seismic Design.pdf
  19. RT @AzzamHuthaifa: ثلاثة رؤساء حكم اثنان منهما مدة ستة عشر عاما والثالث في بداية حكمه جميعهم لم يستبعدوا الخيار العسكري ضد إيران وعلى الأرض…

  20. Minimum reinforcement For Precast Pile

    According to ACI 543R-12 Section, minimum reinforcement for Precast Concrete Piles is 1.5% of cross-sectional area of pile, with a maximum of 8%. Regards.
  21. Inclined force

    That could be one way and would work for a lot of cases. The only downside is if you have a lot of inclined members at different angles, doing this would make model more challenging to check.
  22. RT @Faizan_mufc: Savage by Cricnfo! :D #PakvSL #Wengerout https://t.co/IQz3p9wmnh

  23. Minimum reinforcement For Precast Pile

    What is the Minimum reinforcement For Precast Pile according to different codes (ACI,BS)?? Pile length is 40 times of pile least dimension .
  24. Inclined force

    thanks ,i just came to know that we can assign inclined force (point load) to member by rotating its joint local axis but in sap not in etabs.
  25. AA., In 2015, at least six parking garages partially collapsed in the United States. More collapsed in 2016. Some failures might be due to deficient design or construction, or to inadequate maintenance, but most are due to excessive loading caused by failure of imagination in anticipation of these loads. For details of the failures & some options to avoid them in future, refer to the following article: Failure of imagination Regards.
  26. RT @dmarimqlm: اول تصريح للمواطن الكويتي حجاج العجمي بعد ورود اسمه في قائمة الارهاب الرباعية #قائمة_الارهاب_الجديده #قائمة_الشرف https://t…

  27. Inclined force

    You can also check out use of Project Loading that might have some limited application for your case. http://docs.csiamerica.com/help-files/etabs/Menus/Assign/Frame_Loads/Distributed_Load.htm https://wiki.csiamerica.com/display/kb/Frame+loading Thanks.
  28. Beam Minimum Width ,b

    To what others have said, I would add the following:- 1. Beam width will generally depend upon one or more of the following factors: a. Architectural requirements, mostly requiring that beam width should not be more than the thickness of wall, to be provided above or below the beam. b. Required number of rebar layers, which in turn depend upon beam span & loading to be supported. I personally limit maximum number of rebar layers to 3, and mostly to 2. c. Seismic requirements imposed by the adopted design code. For example, ACI 318-08 requires a minimum beam width of 10 inches, for structures located within seismic zones 3 & 4 (corresponding to seismic design categories D, E & F) d. General beam detailing requirements of adopted design code. For example, according to ACI 318 a minimum beam width of 8" is required for an RC beam reinforced in flexure with 2-#8 bars & #4 stirrups. [Refer to Table A.7 in Appendix A of 'Design of Concrete Structures', 14th edition, by Nilson et al. 2010] 2. Therefore, the actual beam width would depend upon which of the above mentioned conditions governs in the case under reference. Regards.
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