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      Eid-ul-Fitr Mubarak   06/25/2017

      Happy Eid-ul-Fitr everyone. May Almighty shower HIS blessings upon you and your family members.


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Showing most liked content since 05/26/2017 in all areas

  1. 4 points

    Beam deflection in Etabs

    Dear Saiful Islam, Immediate deflection vs long-term deflection is one issue. Linear analysis vs non-linear analysis is another. In ETABS, generally we are almost always performing linear analysis. That means deflection is directly related to the load applied without long-term non-linear effects. So let's ignore non-linear analysis for a moment. In linear analysis, now the question is how do we get immediate and long-term deflection. Immediate deflection could be non-cracked deflection or cracked deflection. Practically speaking, long-term deflection will always be on cracked sections. Although anything "cracked" is essential a non-linear problem, but here let's stick to out point of doing linear analysis only. Now, generally we are not interested in immediate non-cracked deflection. This leaves us with cracked - short-term & long-term deflections in LINEAR analysis. As you are doing LINEAR analysis in ETABS, you cannot get cracked deflections directly. For this, you may apply stiffness reduction modifier option available in ETABS. As you are not applying any stiffness reduction modifier, that means, its NON-CRACKED. This is the answer to your question. However, exploring further, if you want to obtain long-term deflection, you can multiply the immediate deflection by a long-term factor given in ACI chapter 9. ----------------------------- Now comes the non-linear analysis: You can use SAFE for non-linear analysis and get long-term cracked deflections (non-linear) without using modifiers. The cracked non-linear analysis in SAFE will give you long-term cracked deflection which will depend on the extent of cracking which will depend on the reinforcement which will depend on the moment applied. This moment again will depend on the stiffness of cracked section including the reinforcement. So you see, its a non-linear iteration problem. To read further about, linear vs non-linear and elastic vs inelastic analysis, please refer to the book 'Modelling for structural analysis' by Powell.
  2. 3 points
    In order to study the effect/performance of infill walls we are providing infill walls in our half scaled 2-story RC Frame model which we will be testing on 6DOF Shake Table here in Earthquake Engineering Center, UET Peshawar...
  3. 3 points

    Free Vibrations

    W/Salaam, Free vibrations are vibrations of the structure (or any other thing) that result once the structure is excited and the vibrations are let to die down without additional interference. For example if you have a pendulum at rest, you pick the bob in your hand, move it on one side and let it go. Once you let go the bob, the pendulum vibrates around the initial rest point. The period of vibration is dependent on the length of pendulum (technically the parameter that defines its stiffness) and is independent of the mass of the bob. If you measure the time the pendulum would take even as it slows down to complete a cycle, it is exactly the same. Amazing isn't it. This is an example of free vibrations. Now, forced vibrations are different. In forced vibration, you have a situation where the load producing or causing vibration of structure (or any other thing) is "continuously being applied" at a frequency. An example would be a reciporcating or centrifugal machine sitting on say concrete foundation. Operation of machine would put the foundation in vibration (machine load itself has a frequency which may or may not match with foundation natural frequency) and would force the foundation response under its frequency. The foundation will as a result vibrate based on its stiffness (like pendulum). Another example considering the case of pendulum (so that you can relate) for forced vibrations would be if you put a big fan infront of the pendulum and it vibrates under the wind of fan. Summary: In free vibrations, you disturb a structure and let it vibrate without disturbing it further. In forced vibrations, the structure is continuously being disturbed by a force applied at regular interval. That is why they are called forced vibrations as we are forcing structural response under external cyclic load. Enjoy the attached forced vibrations video as well that shows breaking of a wine glass under sound. Sound waves are what are forcing the glass to vibrate and the frequency of the sound waves has been set so that its close to natural frequency of the glass causing it to resonate and break.
  4. 3 points
    According to ACI 543R-12 Section, minimum reinforcement for Precast Concrete Piles is 1.5% of cross-sectional area of pile, with a maximum of 8%. Regards.
  5. 3 points
    Thanx for your kind response, for those who are following the post, i have figured out the problem and thought to share so that others may benefit from it. Actually the results that appear slight negative initially are due to the gravity analysis done before, as the load later increases with each time step the lateral force on frame increases leading to positive shears in cols.
  6. 3 points

    Vierendeel girder

    The book; Modern Structural Analysis in section 5.11 describes vierendeel frames in 2-3 pages.
  7. 3 points

    Updates to Member Roles

    Dear All, I have just finished modifying a bunch of stuff related to member roles and I am very excited to announce it. There are some new member roles that have been created: 1) SEFP Associate As you know that I have been requesting help with a number of stuff on SEFP and there are very generous people who have volunteered. To recognize their effort, I have created this role. An example is @Saad Pervez, who is doing an excellent job running our Social Media pages. From now onwards, you will find him assigned to SEFP Associates. Thanks Saad for your help. 2) SEFP Contributor There are a few members who have been with us through thick and thin. Because, they have regularly answered questions and contributed to forum by not only providing information but their engineering judgement, this role has been created in recognition of their efforts. @Ayesha has been assigned to this and we look forward to add more members to their club. 3) SEFP VIP @EngrUzair deserves this without any question. He is the most senior member of the forum providing invaluable support. Not only this but he has also been a teacher at our beloved Alma Mater. I have created this category in recognition to his efforts. We "might" be adding very few people to this role in upcoming years. 4) Moderators and Super Moderators Our current staff consists of @waqar saleem, @Rana and @BAZ. @Rana and @BAZ have global moderation over the forum and @waqar saleem is currently moderating all the technical sections. They all are doing a great job and I am very thankful them. Because of overall moderation assignment, I have split moderators in Super Moderator and Moderators. Supermods might also get portion of Admin rights over coming years. I have a plan for that but nothing set in stone. Like always, please provide your feedback and let me know what else should be done/ undone. Thanks.
  8. 3 points

    Updates to Member Roles

    Dear Umar! You and your team of moderators are doing an outstanding job, in running this forum. It is very nice to see this forum improving day by day, through the addition of new features & attractions like member rankings etc, and now this roles of honour. Although in my personal opinion, I haven't done anything special, other than to advise the forum members sincerely in the matters I could help in some way. Moreover, I do not do this for my name, but solely because IMO helping others, within my capacity & capabilities, is my moral & national duty. Neverthless, I am grateful to you (as well as to the others who think alike) & really feel proud on being designated as SEFP VIP. Regards.
  9. 2 points
    WA. Dear Junaid, 1. Your research topic is very important, being directly related to the professional engineering practice. Please do share the results & conclusions here, on completion of your research, for the benefit of forum users. 2. For obtaining relevant literature, you may adopt following methods: a. Your university will certainly be having subscription to one or more research publishing websites (like ScienceDirect etc). If so, you may search & download relevant research material from these websites. b. You may also request your colleagues studying in other universities to do a similar search on the websites subscribed by their institutions, in case their subscribed research sites are different. c. Use Google search (with pdf option) to find out relevant research material from many other resources (international universities, research sharing sites like Research Gate & more), downloadable free of cost in several cases. Wish you best of luck in your research. Regards.
  10. 2 points

    Reinforcement in Sap 2000

    Your question is not clear. If you explain your problem in a bit detail, you may get a more specific reply. However, if the purpose of your question is to know about general procedure of interpreting reinforcements given by SAP2000 software, it is given below. 1. When we design a concrete frame in SAP2000, it gives following different types of reinforcement: a. In case of columns, required areas of main (or vertical) steel bars and lateral (or ties) reinforcement. b.In case of beams, results are in the form of reinforcement areas for bottom & top main bars as well as stirrups. 2. Given area of steel for column vertical bars is to be converted to suitable number of bars (using theoretical bar areas, as we do for manual calculations) according to code requirements in such a way that the provided steel area is either equal to or a bit more than the area required by SAP2000. Similarly, reinforcement areas given for bottom & top bars of beam members are converted to suitable number & sizes of bars, such that provided steel area is either equal to or a bit more than the area required by the software. 3. Reinforcement areas provided by SAP2000 for column ties & beam stirrups can be converted to suitable tie & stirrup size and spacing, similar to that explained in the following thread for ETABS case: HTH Regards.
  11. 2 points

    Inclined force

    Yes. Practically however the force or point load is resolved into rectangular components (one parallel to & the other perpendicular to the member axes), before applying to the member. Regards.
  12. 2 points
    Fatima Khalid

    Ground motions download

    use PEER NGA website to extract groundmotions data..
  13. 2 points

    Minimum Investment and Return

    I had a wonderful experience doing forex which I later quit. I am not into stocks but I think the same rules will apply here; 1. The most important thing is to 'be patient'. And by this I mean really be patient. Its a game of nerves. 95% people in forex lose because they are impatient. 2. Always be up to date with latest trends and news, i mean on daily basis. Don't just buy and then sleep. Get familiar with different types of predictors, study the mathematics behind different charts such as Fibonacci retracement. 3. Mix the risk levels. Don't just play only on high risk deals. Now coming back to your question. The minimum investment depends on your goals. Short term or long-term? Risk level: low-risk or high-risk? You wanna make quick profits on the go or really want to be a sustained player? I dont think there is leverage system in stocks as in forex. So i guess anything less than 200k pkr wouldnt yield much. Again it depends on your budget and the strategy. But one caution: Think big, start small. I remember in forex there were virtual accounts to practice for atleast 6 months before investing a considerable amount. See if this is the case in stocks too? Depends on the broker. Even if not, study the market daily thinking like you are actually investing. The thing with forex and stock trading is: if you cannot manage 1$, you cannot manage 1million$. So practice lets say by assuming you have invested 10,000 pkr and then stick to the strategy and see where the market swings. Once you have tested your strategy which ofcourse you have altered time to time based on your learning, start doing investment with real money. One thing good is you are thinking at this stage to make some passive income. Thats brilliant idea. May be you should read "Rich dad, poor dad" book, it will help. Another book i'd recommend is "4 hours work week". They wont teach you about stocks, but will definitely teach you about the ideas of passive income and work-life culture. And lastly, you should constantly input more money every month or year, just compare in excel the compound interest (or profit) graphs. Don't just assume you will put some money and will gain on profits and re-investment. Good but also explore the power if you constantly flowing more money into your investments. Good luck!
  14. 2 points

    Beam Minimum Width ,b

    I haven't read the book by Susil Kumar, but the reason I think that he has an empirical formula is that with the increase in length of the beam, the amount of reinforcement in it would increase as well. Although there are other factors that are more sensitive to causing increase in reinforcement like load intensity but lets focus on span and reinforcement . Naturally a longer span would require more rebars and more rebars would require a wider beam. For the typical design cases we see in Bangladesh and Pakistan where there is a slab on top of beams, lateral stability can be ruled out because of beam top stability due to slab. I think the important item to highlight here is that if your beam is part of a frame, make sure the width of the beam is wide enough to provide enough development length to other frame beams that cross or terminate together with the beam in question. In order to understand my statement, please visualize edge of the frame where 2 beams meet. If the beam in question in not wide enough, the beam merging in this beam would never get enough length to develop top bars. Hope this helps.
  15. 2 points

    Vierendeel girder

    The complete reference to the book referred by @Rana is as under: 'Modern Structural Analysis Modelling process and guidance By Iain a Macleod Published in 2005 by Thomas Telford Publishing.' Regards.
  16. 1 point
    @Ayesha As we are using half scaled Model in our experiment so the objective of this similitude study is to determine a set of principles,correlation and conditions upon which our scaled model can be related to the prototype for predicting prototype performance.
  17. 1 point
    Interesting. I also don't have any experience with Similitude Study. I am curious to ask that what is the objective of this study?
  18. 1 point
    Wa alaikum us salam, I dont have any relevant info regarding similitude study but I found your research topic very interesting. By the way, Are you going to consider effect of infill walls as well? Best of luck.
  19. 1 point
  20. 1 point

    Inclined force

    thanks ,i just came to know that we can assign inclined force (point load) to member by rotating its joint local axis but in sap not in etabs.
  21. 1 point
    AA., In 2015, at least six parking garages partially collapsed in the United States. More collapsed in 2016. Some failures might be due to deficient design or construction, or to inadequate maintenance, but most are due to excessive loading caused by failure of imagination in anticipation of these loads. For details of the failures & some options to avoid them in future, refer to the following article: Failure of imagination Regards.
  22. 1 point

    Inclined force

    You can also check out use of Project Loading that might have some limited application for your case. http://docs.csiamerica.com/help-files/etabs/Menus/Assign/Frame_Loads/Distributed_Load.htm https://wiki.csiamerica.com/display/kb/Frame+loading Thanks.
  23. 1 point

    Beam Minimum Width ,b

    To what others have said, I would add the following:- 1. Beam width will generally depend upon one or more of the following factors: a. Architectural requirements, mostly requiring that beam width should not be more than the thickness of wall, to be provided above or below the beam. b. Required number of rebar layers, which in turn depend upon beam span & loading to be supported. I personally limit maximum number of rebar layers to 3, and mostly to 2. c. Seismic requirements imposed by the adopted design code. For example, ACI 318-08 requires a minimum beam width of 10 inches, for structures located within seismic zones 3 & 4 (corresponding to seismic design categories D, E & F) d. General beam detailing requirements of adopted design code. For example, according to ACI 318 a minimum beam width of 8" is required for an RC beam reinforced in flexure with 2-#8 bars & #4 stirrups. [Refer to Table A.7 in Appendix A of 'Design of Concrete Structures', 14th edition, by Nilson et al. 2010] 2. Therefore, the actual beam width would depend upon which of the above mentioned conditions governs in the case under reference. Regards.
  24. 1 point

    Minimum Investment and Return

    WS, There are different ways you can invest in PSX. The two common ones are: 1) By buying mutual funds 2) Open an account with a broker For Investing in mutual funds, you can head to any bank and ask them about what mutual funds they offer. Mutual funds are investment vehicle that allows pool of investors to buy group of stocks bundled in a single fund. Investment in mutual funds suits people who don't want to invest a large amount and would prefer a small percentage of their monthly income go towards investment (5-10% of Salary, You can even go higher or lower). Mutual funds usually have a fees 1-3% that is deducted from any profits. You can read more about investing in mutual funds here: https://www.dawn.com/news/1109126 . Meezan Bank has some very good index tracking mutual funds. You can check them out on their website if they would suit your needs. The second option of opening an account with a broker, requires you to do the trades. This is easy as well but remember to pick a top of the link broker as there is some history of broker fraud. Good brokers are Topline Securities, AKD Securities and any reputable bank that would offer these services. My broker is AKD. Every broker has a minimum capital investment requirement and charges they would deduct per stock trade. I think AKD requires a minimum investment of RS 100,000 (http://www.akdtrade.com). Once you open an account with a broker, you should also sign up for CDC. CDC is a body that protects investors incase of broker fraud. If you are signed up with CDC, your broker is required to copy CDC on each transaction. That means that CDC has a record of your investments and all investments in shares are safe. Anyway, when you invest by opening an account with a broker, you directly buy shares or sell them through your broker. They will provide you with a software which allows you to do that. It is very simple. In order to know which shares to buy, you will need to spend time to know the business in which you are investing. I can elaborate on that later after you have opened an account. Here are a few rules that I have invented that can help you with stock investment: Rule number 1 is that stock are only profitable if you invest your savings that you would not need to at least 3-5 years. If you have money set aside and you think that you will need that money in an year, don't invest in stocks. The reason being that stocks are very volatile and risky. It takes time for an investment to grow and produce returns. If your time frame is small, you are speculating the market not investing. Rule number 2 is that you can only make money in stocks if you buy them at a reasonable price. In order to know what a reasonable price is, you will need to look up company's financial statement and go through the numbers. It is very hard to make money in stocks if you don't buy them at a decent price. Rule number 3 is that never give your money to someone else to invest in stocks. If someone tells you that they would provide you with a guaranteed return of X thousands Rupees per month, that is a ponzi scheme. Stay away or you will lose your hard earned money. This rule is very important and applies to everyone esp people you have known for a long time. Rule number 4 is that never borrow money to invest in stocks. This is very dangerous. Borrowing to invest in stocks is pure speculation. Rule number 5 is read the book called The Intelligent Investor by Benjamin Graham. So if you follow the rules you will get a good return. I have even got 100%+ returns on some investments. The key is to keep reading stuff and do it yourself. Let me know should you have additional questions. Thanks.
  25. 1 point

    Ground motions download

    Very nice. Well...following are excepts from my thesis; You can use following databases that my instructor recommended; "6- I suggest that you model using time history analysis. There is different data banks where you can look for low frequency ground motions/earthquakes. Take a look into the following websites: a. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/monitoring/nsmp/data.php b. http://strongmotioncenter.org/cgi-bin/CESMD/search1.pl in the second website you will find a lot of datasets recorded from different earthquakes. I suggest you spend some time until you understand the structure of these websites and the data available there so that you can choose a number of earthquakes that you could use in your studies."
  26. 1 point
    Its Opensees: Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation.. A finite element program used for research purposes
  27. 1 point

    Response Spectrum Analysis in ETABS

    Good question. Seismic forces are actually inertial forces generated within a body in response to seismic acceleration at ground. When seismic ground waves (PGA) accelerate a building (Sa; spectral acceleration), the inertia of a building resist these accelerations generating inertial forces in the building. Inertial forces are nothing strange but the usual F=ma i.e. the product of mass and acceleration. In softwares, the joints or nodes are loaded with this F based on the mass attributed to the tributary area of that particular node x accelration of that floor. Like this, these forces are applied at each level like static procedures.
  28. 1 point

    Vierendeel girder

    To start with, search "Vierendeel girder analysis and design" on Google. In the displayed results, look for book names or pdf files. In this way, you might be able to select some relevant resources on your topic & in certain cases, download them as well. Regards.
  29. 1 point

    Manual and Etabs result don't match

    The first thing you need to check is if you have done a modelling mistake or not. ETABS and Manual results shouldn't be off by more than 2%. Here are a few items that you should check and then get back to us. 1. Check Total Gravity Load The easiest way to do it is that to check vertical reaction (gravity only) at a column. If the manual and ETABS column reactions for gravity load are same at different locations in your model, then you can assume that your loading input is correct. As a rule of thumb, you centre columns with biggest tributary areas should have higher reaction than corner and edge column assuming constant grid framing. 2. Check Load Combinations The next step is to check the load combination and that if the loads have been correctly assigned to each load category. The best way to do that is to print your load combinations and check them on paper. Similarly, load cases assignments can be checked as well. Pay attention to signs of +ve and -ve. 3. Check Units When checking assigned load cases, you need to make your that you have applied the loads in the correct units. It is very common to juggle the units while multi-tasking. Verify all units. 4. Check Material Properties I have checked a lot of models where everything was correct except for material properties. Sometimes, the design engineer enters wrong unit weight and it messes all the reactions and design. Be sure to verify material properties. 5. Check Stiffness Modifiers If you are assigning stiffness modifiers, please check them to ensure they are correct. 6. Check Slab Thickness Make sure your slab thickness is correct and not in wrong units. 7. Check member sizes Make sure that the members are correctly modelled. 8. Check Model for Errors You need to make sure that your model is stable. If your model is unstable your results would mean nothing. I don't know what the latest version of ETABS does in-terms of instability warnings but SAP2000 would never give you instability warning. You will have to go in the analysis log and check if the model is stable or unstable. A lot of junior engineer just get their results from unstable models which is dangerous. Check the analysis log and check model for all error including meshing. After you have completed all these steps, you will have more confidence in stating the discrepancy between ETABS and Manual Calcs.
  30. 1 point
    In manual calculation we do 2D analysis of structures using different method of analysis than stiffness method. So somewhat difference will always be there while you compare results of manual vs Etabs in Systems.. For individual elements, they are 100% same.... More over, be sure to make modifiers of slab to 0.0001 to nullify slab stiffness because in manual analysis, might be u are assuming only rectangular beam and applying line load to this beam. but in etabs you are modeling slab with beam making system a bit stiffer due to slab stiffness. If you will reduce slab stiffness to negligible value, than results will be near to each other. Still there will be some difference because we might be using force methods idealizing 2D structure while etabs performs 3D analysis using direct stiffness method.
  31. 1 point
    I was browsing through my archives are noticed a bunch of articles written by NICEE (National Information Centre of Earthquake Engineering (NICEE) was established in IIT Kanpur with the mandate to empower all stakeholders in the building industry in seismic safety towards ensuring an earthquake resistant built environment. NICEE maintains and disseminates information resources on Earthquake Engineering. It undertakes community outreach activities aimed at mitigation of earthquake disasters. NICEE’s target audience includes professionals, academics and all others with an interest in and concern for seismic safety). The articles are free to publish as long as original content stays unchanged. These articles are good for fresh structural engineers and Civil/ Structural Engineering Students. The best thing about them is that they are only 2 pages and full of images. It literally takes less than 5 min to go through each. EQTip19.pdf EQTip20.pdf How architectural features effect buildings.pdf How buildings twist during earthquakes.pdf How do Beam-Column Joints in RC Buildings Resist Earthquakes.pdf How do Brick Masonry behave during Earthquake.pdf How do Columns in RC Buildings Resist Earthquakes.pdf How do Earthquake Affect Reinforced Concrete Buildings.pdf How Flexibility of Buildings affect their earthquake response.pdf How the ground shakes.pdf How to make building ductile for Good Seismic Performace.pdf How to make Stone Masonry Buildings Earthquake Resistant.pdf How to Reduce Earthquake Effects on Buildings.pdf What are magnitudes and intensity.pdf What are seismic effects on structures.pdf What causes earthquake.pdf What is seismic design philosophy of Buildings.pdf Why are Buildings with Shear Walls Preferred in Seismic Regions.pdf Why are horizontal bands necessary in masonry buildings.pdf Why are Open Ground Storey Buildings Vulnerable in Earthquakes.pdf Why are Short Columns more Damaged During Earthquake.pdf Why is vertical reinforcement required in masonry buildings.pdf Why should Masonry Buildings have simple Structural Configuration.pdf
  32. 1 point

    Basement Wall Design

    Here is a solved example as well. Buried Concrete Basement Wall Design.pdf
  33. 1 point
    Hello Everyone, Here is a list of new features in the upcoming update: Updates to Editor ( @EngrUzair might like this one ) Fluid Forum View ( @Rana check this out) Reactions Recommended Replies (Moderator Related Stuff) Content Messages (Moderator Related Stuff) Leaderboard Enhancement Richer Embeds Forcing Members to Complete Profile Improvements to Social Sign In Clubs (Clubs will allow forum members to create their own groups in the forum and discuss things other than structural engineering) I am very excited about all these improvements. Stay tuned for more. This update is expected to roll out in summer. Thanks.
  34. 1 point
    Dear Fellows I have encountered an issue; draftsmen/architects take projects from clients and make structural drawings without calculations and there are engineers whose stamps are available at printing shops which are stamped for very minimal charges. Structural engineers who are stamping as designer and as vetter are having filthy money without fulfilling their duties. These designers and vetters disregard the profession and engineering community, they do not have any ethics and sense of humanity. PEC do nothing or there is no complain against them. Being engineers and specially as structural engineers this is our responsibility to raise this issue to PEC or any other authorities and more to educate our engineering community that have respect and dignity in the profession, one must not disrespect his profession or let disrespected by such black sheep in the community. If a system/community have the ability to spit the wrong things out it remains alive and working perfectly. when system/community allows everything without check, such community is already dead. Structural engineers do not get projects who are working earnestly due to such people. Main aspect of design safety of humanity is at stack . This is totally against the PEC Code of Ethics. This is against the PEC Code of Conduct. Allah has bestowed us with great knowledge and brain to use for serving humanity and earning rizq e halal. We do use our brains rightly. We should stop this corruption by whatever means we can do.We must spit these non-professionals out of our community. This forum is one of the unique voice of structural engineering community, people comes here to get and share knowledge. I request to all the members that will stand with me on this issue. There is immense need to educate people that structural engineering is a business of life/economy saving, the fees structural engineers charge is nothing in comparison to the cost of lives lost during any incident due to incomplete and false designs or more accurate no designs. Regards
  35. 1 point
    Thanks a lot for sharing...
  36. 1 point
    Dear All, While browsing the internet, I came across the following confined masonry guidelines available free to public. They are very informative and would add value to you design practise. Source: http://www.confinedmasonry.org Enjoy. Confined Masonry Earthquake Resistant Guideline .pdf Construction-Guide-for-Low-Rise-Confined-Masonry-Buildings.pdf Pakistan_CM-manualv3.0.3TomSchacher.pdf Pakistan_confined-masonry-english.pdf Pakistan_ERRA_Guideline_CM.pdf
  37. 1 point
    Very vital information, and in urdu as well for understanding of all. Must be shared with as many construction related people as we can. Thanks @Junaid! for sharing such an important document. Well done!
  38. 1 point
  39. 1 point
    Great useful sharing Junaid!!!
  40. 1 point

    Column Placing/Positioning

    First you must be clear about requirements (arch, mep etc). Have a clear understanding of dwgs, are the cols masonary, non load bearing? Have you prepared 2, 3 different struc schemes? If you think you can value engineer and reduce cols, check with client req if they too want it. Then you make sure the scheme is working, deflections, load paths, foundations, framing, cost. Reducing cols mean, bigger beam and slab spans and so more deflections. Have you checked that? Also more local load on foundations if cols are far, and more sway in wind/eq bcz less bending stiffness of vertical elements (if you are not increasing col/wall sizes to compensate that). If above is okay, you can eliminate cols that are not required. As a struc engr you have to be proactive, pitchin and promote the "most efficient" scheme that is "simple" and "necessary".
  41. 1 point

    P Delta Analysis in STAAD Pro

    Basically, you will need to go through STAAD.Pro Technical help & manuals to understand the procedure. Following links might also be helpful in this regard: 1. http://playit.pk/watch?v=58nHw9d7syM 2. http://www.sefindia.org/forum/files/pdelta_and_buckling1_156.pdf 3. http://playit.pk/watch?v=nu37r2IVG58 4. http://playit.pk/watch?v=SZ1trg0fZDA 5. http://playit.pk/watch?v=0ZbDfRn4kHo HTH
  42. 1 point
    Wa-alaikum-assalam, Following links may be helpful, in this connection: 1. External features of the Faisal Mosque (http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Chapters/321S-1.pdf) 2. Internal features (http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Chapters/321S-3.pdf) 3. Decorative elements (http://prr.hec.gov.pk/Chapters/321S-4.pdf) Regards.
  43. 1 point
    Concrete! isnt it?
  44. 1 point
    Dear colleagues, The following article describes some of the most common errors, we may make while carrying out seismic design in accordance with ASCE 7-10 and IBC 2012. It also guides us how to avoid these errors in our future designs. http://www.structuremag.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/C-StrucPerform-Heausler-Sept151.pdf A somewhat different version of above article, is available at the following link: http://seaoo.org/downloads/NCSEA_Conf_Info/2014_ncsea_common_errors_in_seismic_design___how_to_avoid_them._t._heausler.pdf Regards.
  45. 1 point
    waqar, In case of SAFE 12, relevant information is located in 'PROGRAM CONTROL' area of the model text file. The data to be modified here would be for 'ProgramName', 'Version', and possibly 'ProgLevel'. I haven't come across the SAFE v14 files yet. However, the process for SAFE 14 should be similar to that for SAFE 12, with some minor changes, if any. Regards.
  46. 1 point
    for distribution of steel in beam of etabs PLEASE DOWNLOADTHIS IMAGE
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