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    • Hi guys just to discuss with you my understanding of crack widths in Environmental structures according to ACI. 



      Normal structures



      1. ACI 318-95 based on statistical method of Gergely & Lutz 1968 limits Z based on exposure. We are calculating crack widths here. (Normal structures)


      2. ACI 318-99 proposed limiting the spacing and removed actually calculating the width and also removed the exposure conditions. For example for beams and one-way slabs s (in) = 540/fs -2.5cc or in other words limiting the fs=0.6fy  (For normal structures)


      3. ACI 224R-01 references method 1 and 2 above and 3 european codes.

      The most confusing part is the table in which Nawy suggests 0.1mm crack width for water-tight structures. The whole document is for normal structures except this line. And people are following this line and refer to this document for water tight structures. I mean its just a suggestion and by the way this method 1 is obsolete now since ACI 318-99 (see point 2 above).



      Water tight structures



      1. ACI 318-08 states clearly that for watertight structures ACI 350-06 codes should be used. 


      2. ACI 224.4R-13 also specifically states that for watertight structures walls in section 7.4, we should use ACI 350-06. 


      3. ACI 350-06 for water tight structures does not recommend calculating a number for crack width but rather limiting max steel stress in bars to be 20k ksi or fs=0.33fy for normal conditions.



      To sum it up, 


      Philosophy of crack width control is not to calculate probable crack widths but to limit the max stress in steel bars.


      For normal structures: fs=0.6fy and for water tight structures fs=0.33fy
      • 1 reply
    • Hi

      I want to know the use of diaphragms in etabs. i discus many people who are use etabs but i can't get justified answer about the application of etabs.

      I read the Technical reference  of  Etabs, where they write about Diaphragms. i get two type of diaphragms (plate or shell and joint or beam). 

      My question.

      1. When do i use Shell diaphragms (if floor present ) 

      2.When do i use joint diaphragms ( grade beam level where no slab are provide) 


      NB: Diaphragms use to transfer the lateral load to the resisting element ( frame such as column. beam,shear wall) 
      • 2 replies
    • *SEFP Consistent Design*<br style="color:#272a34">*Pile Design*<br style="color:#272a34">*Doc No: 10-00-CD-0005*<br style="color:#272a34">*Date: Nov 21, 2017*<br style="color:#272a34">

      This article is intended to cover design of piles using Ultimate Limit State (ULS) method. The use of ULS method is fairly new for geotechnical design (last decade). The method is being used in multiple countries now (Canada, Australia etc). The following items shall be discussed:


      Geotechnical Design of Piles (Compression Loads, Tension Loads and Lateral Loads)

      Structural Design of Piles (Covering both Concrete and Steel)

      Connection of Pile with the foundation (Covering both Concrete and Steel)

      Pile Group Settlement

      Things to consider


      1. Overview

      Piles provide a suitable load path to transfer super-structure loads to foundation where shallow foundation are not suitable - this can be due to a number of reasons like existing space constraints or suitable soil strata is not present immediately below structure. Other uses can be to meet design requirements like to have reduced settlement etc.

      This article shall cover the use of straight shaft cast-in-place concrete piles and straight shaft driven steel pipe piles. There are a number of additional piles types like belled concrete piles, precast concrete piles, screw / helical steel piles etc but the discussion to choose a suitable pile type is not in the intended scope of this article. The article is intended  to discuss design requirements for straight shaft piles only (both concrete and steel) . The aforementioned topic about pile selection is a very diverse subject and requires a separate discussion on its own.

      Click on the link to read the full article.
      • 9 replies
    • I am suppose to design a pile foundation for a machine weighing approximately 50 tons and with an operational loading of 100 tons. 
      I ll appreciate your help in terms of guidance & provision of notes...  
      Thank you..
      • 36 replies
    • Material behavior can be idealized as consisting of an 'elastic' domain and a 'plastic' domain. For almost 200 years, structural design has been
      based on an elastic theory which assumes that structures display a linear response throughout their loading history, ignoring the post-yielding
      stage of behavior. Current design practice for reinforced concrete structures is a curious blend of elastic analysis to compute forces and moments, plasticity theory to proportion cross-sections for the moment and axial, load, and empirical mumbo-jumbo to proportion members for shear.


      From the book "Design of Concrete Structures with Stress Fields" by A. Muttoni,  J. Schwartz and  B.Thurliman.

      • 0 replies
    • Dear Fellow Researchers, Academicians, and research students,


      NED University of Engineering & Technology in collaboration with Institution of Engineers Pakistan (IEP) is organizing 9th International Civil Engineering Conference (ICEC 2017) on December 22-23, 2017 at Karachi, Pakistan.

       The congress details are available at its website www.neduet.edu.pk/icec

       Also attached is congress flyer for information and dissemination among your peers.

       Abstracts submission deadline has been extended till October 31, 2017.

      Please click on the link to see the full description.
      • 0 replies
    • AoA all,

      Is it mandatory to do column concreting upto the soffit of the beam in a single pour ?

      What code says about the construction/cold joint location in column ?

      Majority of the contractors are pouring the column concrete upto the soffit of the beam (full height of the column), some contractors leave the column height about 9" to 12" below the beam level and then fill this 9" to 12" column height with the beams & slab concreting. On one site column concreting was stopped at the mid height and the remaining half was filled on the next day.



      • 5 replies
    • AOA 

      i am facing problems in shear wall design .what are the pier and spandral ?what will be the difference when we assign pier or spandral? without assigning these the shear wall design is incomplete .

      i am taking about etabsv16

      someone have document about shear wall design plz provide it 

      thank you

      • 10 replies
    • Salam Members,

      Congratulations to Engineers, PEC has become full signatory of Washington Accord, what are the benefits to Pakistani engineers for this agreement. 




      • 3 replies
    • Please clarify the following confusions one by one:-


      1. If we run P-delta analysis in ETABS, then should we ignore stiffness property modifiers for beams and columns? I have heard that if we perform P-delta analysis and apply stiffness modifiers at the same time then the moment magnification process is doubled...?


      2. ETABS considers selenderness of a column by applying moment magnification factors. If we run P-delta analysis also, does it mean that the selenderness of column is being over-estimated? I mean once the moments are magnified in P-delta analysis process and again through moment magnification process?


      Please help me understand the software myth and clarify above confusions.
      • 1 reply
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    • By groszni awesome
      Hello there SEpakistan,
      Im designing a long span structure for roof, this just an alternative instead of using PEB. The span of structure is 53m and its monosloped. I know in this case gravity loads will govern. DL = 30 kg/m2 and live loads 58 kg/m2. 
      I tried to model this structure in staad pro with lattice girder with bottom and top chord using T section, and vertical and diagonal with double angles. 
      Because the top and bottom chord will be continous when jointed with vertical and diagonal member, so i just add the truss spec to the diagonal and vertical member as a truss.
      When i run the analysis, the top chord and bottom chord behave just like a beam on the outer fiber. near the support the top chord got tension forces and bottom chord got compression forces, and on the mid of span the top chords is in compression and the bottom chord is in tension, i modeled this a rigid to column.
      My question is how do i apropriate design this lattice girder? Did i do it wrong? 
      I need some explanation on how this kind of system works.
      Thank you.
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  • Latest Forum and Club Posts

    • Hello I have a question regarding stiffness modifiers in ETABS. The code(ACI318) specifies us to use stiffness modifiers for walls column etc. What if I use 0.35 as stiffness modifier and not 0.7. What is the effect.I know that we have these stiffness modifiers based upon cracking of section and using these modifiers results in lesser stiffness thereby reductions in attraction of lateral forces.But suppose I want to reduce the lateral forces on walls therby using stiffness modifiers 0.35 for walls and not following the ACI. Thanks
    • Dear Seniors!  Anyone having CISC (Canadian Institute of Steel Construction ) manual. I need it for finding Bx (monosymmetry constant )values for steel sections. Thanks
    • Yes its a culvert with long walls and slab on top. And so it cant be designed as a retaining wall. But due to longer length, main reinforcement will be that along the shorter span i.e. height (vertical reinforcement). I was thinking it should be designed using attached formula for for FEM when performing Moment Distribution, and W will be same as we do for triangular load. I was just confused if I need to use the walls coefficient method but I guess that's for walls with 2-way action which isn't the case here.  
    • AOA!!. i want to how can load be transfer from slab to beam after analysis in etab ?? whether it can be done throught tributary area ?? Secondly, i have a sheet in which only service dead and live load has to be placed so to find service dead load of beam i have to find self weight of beam and add it ith imposed dead load which i have assign on slab in etabs... Thank you.. 
    • AOA!!. i want to how can load be transfer from slab to beam after analysis in etab ?? whether it can be done throught tributary area ?? Secondly, i have a sheet in which only service dead and live load has to be placed so to find service dead load of beam i have to find self weight of beam and add it ith imposed dead load which i have assign on slab in etabs... Thank you.. 
    • Thanks Umar.   I am need the sofware Straus 7, Can help me?
    • (ka*unit weight*height)  is the base pressure of the triangular force. You need to use ka*1/2*Gamma*h*h as the force and then multiply the force by lever arm (I think its 1/3rd (likely) or 2/3rd height - see literature) to get the moment at the base. If you have got a long wall, you should also do a check for counterforts to see if they are required or not. I am not sure why you called this a culvert, if its a long retaining wall. If you have a slab on top level, then the design would be different. Can you share a picture or a drawing. Thanks.
    • If it is designed properly, yes. What that means is that your slab needs to meet strength and serviceability criteria. You can model a waffle slab in safe and check if its reinforcement requirement and deflection are under code permissible. Thanks.
    • Ingrid, I might not be the best person for this. I have requested a tunnel specialist to join this forum. Lets see if he comes. Thanks.
    • Thanks you, Umar e Hira. Really need help!
      I have not could have good answers in my model!
      I am trying contact with you (Umar), but i did not can Regards! My tunnel is in soil.

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