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      Eid-ul-Fitr Mubarak   06/25/2017

      Happy Eid-ul-Fitr everyone. May Almighty shower HIS blessings upon you and your family members.


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EngrUzair last won the day on June 21

EngrUzair had the most liked content!

About EngrUzair

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    MSU USA & UET Taxila
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    Structural loading, RC design, Steel design, Fire damaged structures, Structural evaluation & rehabilitation

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  1. Expert opinion on M.Sc. research Topic selection

    WA. Dear Junaid, 1. Your research topic is very important, being directly related to the professional engineering practice. Please do share the results & conclusions here, on completion of your research, for the benefit of forum users. 2. For obtaining relevant literature, you may adopt following methods: a. Your university will certainly be having subscription to one or more research publishing websites (like ScienceDirect etc). If so, you may search & download relevant research material from these websites. b. You may also request your colleagues studying in other universities to do a similar search on the websites subscribed by their institutions, in case their subscribed research sites are different. c. Use Google search (with pdf option) to find out relevant research material from many other resources (international universities, research sharing sites like Research Gate & more), downloadable free of cost in several cases. Wish you best of luck in your research. Regards.
  2. Reinforcement in Sap 2000

    Your question is not clear. If you explain your problem in a bit detail, you may get a more specific reply. However, if the purpose of your question is to know about general procedure of interpreting reinforcements given by SAP2000 software, it is given below. 1. When we design a concrete frame in SAP2000, it gives following different types of reinforcement: a. In case of columns, required areas of main (or vertical) steel bars and lateral (or ties) reinforcement. b.In case of beams, results are in the form of reinforcement areas for bottom & top main bars as well as stirrups. 2. Given area of steel for column vertical bars is to be converted to suitable number of bars (using theoretical bar areas, as we do for manual calculations) according to code requirements in such a way that the provided steel area is either equal to or a bit more than the area required by SAP2000. Similarly, reinforcement areas given for bottom & top bars of beam members are converted to suitable number & sizes of bars, such that provided steel area is either equal to or a bit more than the area required by the software. 3. Reinforcement areas provided by SAP2000 for column ties & beam stirrups can be converted to suitable tie & stirrup size and spacing, similar to that explained in the following thread for ETABS case: HTH Regards.
  3. Minimum reinforcement For Precast Pile

    According to ACI 543R-12 Section, minimum reinforcement for Precast Concrete Piles is 1.5% of cross-sectional area of pile, with a maximum of 8%. Regards.
  4. AA., In 2015, at least six parking garages partially collapsed in the United States. More collapsed in 2016. Some failures might be due to deficient design or construction, or to inadequate maintenance, but most are due to excessive loading caused by failure of imagination in anticipation of these loads. For details of the failures & some options to avoid them in future, refer to the following article: Failure of imagination Regards.
  5. Beam Minimum Width ,b

    To what others have said, I would add the following:- 1. Beam width will generally depend upon one or more of the following factors: a. Architectural requirements, mostly requiring that beam width should not be more than the thickness of wall, to be provided above or below the beam. b. Required number of rebar layers, which in turn depend upon beam span & loading to be supported. I personally limit maximum number of rebar layers to 3, and mostly to 2. c. Seismic requirements imposed by the adopted design code. For example, ACI 318-08 requires a minimum beam width of 10 inches, for structures located within seismic zones 3 & 4 (corresponding to seismic design categories D, E & F) d. General beam detailing requirements of adopted design code. For example, according to ACI 318 a minimum beam width of 8" is required for an RC beam reinforced in flexure with 2-#8 bars & #4 stirrups. [Refer to Table A.7 in Appendix A of 'Design of Concrete Structures', 14th edition, by Nilson et al. 2010] 2. Therefore, the actual beam width would depend upon which of the above mentioned conditions governs in the case under reference. Regards.
  6. Inclined force

    Yes. Practically however the force or point load is resolved into rectangular components (one parallel to & the other perpendicular to the member axes), before applying to the member. Regards.
  7. Vierendeel girder

    The complete reference to the book referred by @Rana is as under: 'Modern Structural Analysis Modelling process and guidance By Iain a Macleod Published in 2005 by Thomas Telford Publishing.' Regards.
  8. Dear Umar! You and your team of moderators are doing an outstanding job, in running this forum. It is very nice to see this forum improving day by day, through the addition of new features & attractions like member rankings etc, and now this roles of honour. Although in my personal opinion, I haven't done anything special, other than to advise the forum members sincerely in the matters I could help in some way. Moreover, I do not do this for my name, but solely because IMO helping others, within my capacity & capabilities, is my moral & national duty. Neverthless, I am grateful to you (as well as to the others who think alike) & really feel proud on being designated as SEFP VIP. Regards.
  9. Vierendeel girder

    To start with, search "Vierendeel girder analysis and design" on Google. In the displayed results, look for book names or pdf files. In this way, you might be able to select some relevant resources on your topic & in certain cases, download them as well. Regards.
  10. AA. Having more than one email addresses is normally not a good idea, in that you need more time to in order to check all the email accounts regularly. However, with the option of using the forum email as forwarding email only, it is really a good idea especially with reference to promotion of the forum. IMHO, all those eligible, must get the forum email addresses and start using it more than their other email addresses, so that more and more people get familiar with the forum. Regards.
  11. 1997 Ubc Vertical Earthquake Term Ev

    The article quoted above by Rana, can more easily be downloaded in full from the following link:- http://peer.berkeley.edu/tbi/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Poorly_Worded_Ill-Conceived_and_Unnecessary_Code_Provisions.pdf Regards.
  12. Fragility Curve

    Here are my two cents: 1. A Fragility Curve (FC), like the one shown above, correlates 'probability' of occurrence of a well-defined 'damage state' or condition, in case a 'structure' is subjected to a given earthquake parameter. 2. In case of given FC, the 'damage state' is the Permanent Vertical Ground Displacement (PVGD), sustained by the 'structure' (which are actually two retaining walls (RWs), one 6.0 m & the other 7.5 m high), as a result of being subjected to various Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) shown along horizontal axis of the curve. The 'probability' is shown along vertical axis. It is for a specific soil profile type C. 3. Various 'damage states' applicable to this FC are, as under: a. 'Minor' means a PVGD value between 0.02 and 0.08. b. 'Moderate' means a PVGD value between 0.08 and 0.22, whereas c. 'Extensive/complete' means a PVGD value between 0.22 and 0.58. 4. This FC is comparing the probability of sustaining (or exceeding) the PVGD of the two RWs, when subjected to a given PGA. Continuous lines in the FC are for 7.5 m high RW, & dashed-lines for the 6.0 m high RW. 5. Now, if we want to know 'What is the probability of occurring 'Extensive/complete' damage (i.e., PVGD value of the two RWs at 0.6 PGA?', it is lesser for 6.0 m wall, and more for 7.5 m wall (Actual values may be read from the two lowest Red curves). 6. No. It is is not that way. This actually means that there is 25% probability that building will experience extensive damage (h=7.5m), 55% probability that it will experience moderate damage and 90% probability that will experience slight damage only. These probabilities are however independent of each other, and AFAIK, these are not added together. 7. This FC is part of a research paper that may be consulted at the following link, in case a deeper insight on the subject is required: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257102194_Development_of_fragility_functions_for_geotechnical_constructions_Application_to_cantilever_retaining_walls Regards.
  13. Dear fellows! If someone has attended above mentioned courses, it would be a good idea to share the new knowledge gathered during the course, for the benefit of forum members and viewers. Regards.
  14. Performance based design

    Check the following, to start with: https://www.google.com/search?q=performance+based+design+free+sources&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b
  15. Pile Foundation Book Muni Budhu

    Check the following link. May be it could help. http://www.sepakistan.com/topic/115-pile-design/?do=findComment&comment=860 Regards.

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